How to Understand a COA (Certificate of Analysis)

How to Understand a COA (Certificate of Analysis)

Learn how to assess and understand COAs with E1011 Labs

When you are shopping for hemp or cannabis products, It’s essential to verify that it's clean, potent, and as-described.

The 2018 Farm Bill legalized strains of Cannabis Sativa L. with less than 0.3 percent THC on a dry-weight basis (industrial hemp), allowing for the production and sale of hemp-derived CBD (Cannabidiol) products across America. Since CBD products are part of a rapidly growing market, numerous companies peddling CBD have sprung up seemingly overnight. Unfortunately, regulations have not kept up with that speed. Curious if hemp is legal in your state, read our state by state breakdown here.

Unlike Cannabis (Cannabis Sativa L. plant with more than 0.3 percent THC), Hemp does not have the same stringent lab-testing regulations on a state or federal level. In order for any Cannabis plants to be processed, stocked, or sold at a legal dispensary, it must be lab-tested by a third-party independent laboratory. It is true that if the hemp plant is being used solely for its hemp fiber, there wouldn't be a need for such stringent testing procedures as high levels of toxic metals wouldn't be such a great concern.

But, if hemp products are being manufactured and used in a similar fashion as Cannabis products, why isn't lab-tested CBD a standard? Fortunately, despite the lack of regulation, many CBD companies have taken these necessary procedures upon themselves.

What is a COA?

COAs are important regardless of what intake methods you've picked for your CBD. Whether you are smoking, vaping, eating, drinking, or applying it topically, it is important to know that your product is free from pesticides and other heavy metals.

But how exactly do you know your CBD is coming from a trustworthy source? You need to see the Certificate of Analysis (COA) for each product you consider. Any reputable company will test their products at a third-party laboratory and make the results readily available for their customers. If you’re concerned about the potency of a product, whether it contains terpenes, or if it will cause you to fail a drug test, it’s vital to review and understand the COA.

What’s in a COA?

Just because a company provides a complete and accurate Certificate of Analysis doesn’t mean you’ll be able to decipher it with a glance. It may include unfamiliar terms, but after reading this, we promise it'll be less daunting. After a simple explanation of these terms, you can confidently interpret COAs and make an informed decision when shopping for CBD cannabis and hemp.

Important Terms: 

  • LoQ = Limit of Quantification. This is the smallest amount the test will quantify or list
  • LoD = Level of Detection. This is the smallest amount the test can detect
  • ND = None Detected
  • NT = Not Tested
  • CFU - Colony-Forming Units (for microbes)

The COA Header

Certificate of Analysis (COA) Header

First, check that the company producing the item didn’t analyze it themselves. You want to be sure that an independent lab conducted the test.

Next, verify that the COA names the company selling the product unless they are testing ingredients that are repackaged and sold under their own brand. Also, be sure that the test date is recent. Months-old test results could indicate inadequate testing protocols or a recent result the company doesn’t want you to see. There should also be a lot number from the sample taken.

The COA Footer

Certificate of Analysis (COA) footer

At the bottom of the COA, you should see the lab’s certifications, indicating that they follow careful protocols and standards of practice that validate the results. You should also take note of the signatures of the laboratory technicians certifying the accuracy of the test. Once you’ve confirmed that the header and footer is legitimate, it’s time to dive into the juicy details in the middle.

Results Columns

Certificate of Analysis (COA) Result

The contents of a product may appear in several different ways: milligrams (mg) in the full product, milligrams per milliliter (ml), or mg per gram (g). The measurement used should be listed in the column where the content results are displayed.


Most tests generally list several other chemicals besides CBD and THC. These are usually abbreviated, though THC could appear as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or Δ-9-THC. The product’s COA might also display Δ-9-THCa and Δ-8-THC contents. The critical thing to know is that a product’s total THC content is below 0.3% by dry weight, to comply with the 2018 Farm Bill’s definition of industrial (non-psychoactive) hemp. 

Aside from CBD, some products may contain other cannabinoid compounds such as CBG, CBDa, CBDA, CBN, and aromatic compounds called terpenes. These all have various benefits, and terpenes can add to the flavor profile of full-spectrum extracts. The entourage effect refers to how multiple compounds can synergistically work together to produce an enhanced result. 

Therefore, don’t be alarmed if several other chemicals with names sounding similar to cannabidiol also appear in the results. Of course, if you’re buying a product specifically for the CBD content, it pays to make sure that it contains the amount claimed on the label. 

If the test measures CBD levels in mg per ml (typical of extracts and vape juice), then all you need to do is multiply the mg/ml result by the product’s total contents. For example, if a product claims to contain 1000mg of CBD per 30ml bottle, the mg/ml needs to be 33.3 or higher.

For tinctures, one ml weighs roughly one gram, so the calculations will remain the same even if the results are rendered in mg/g. Milligrams per gram is more common with pure herb, powders, and capsules. 

If the sample is an entire dose or unit of product, it should be even easier to calculate how many mg of CBD you are getting for your money.

Other Results

A thorough COA will also tell you whether the sample is contaminated by microbes, pesticide residues, or heavy metal contaminants like mercury, lead, arsenic, and cadmium. Hemp plants do pull metals and certain toxins from the soil, so good cultivation practices are necessary. 

E1011 Labs is dedicated to bringing you the most exceptional CBD inhalation experience. Our Elon device heats pure hemp flower to the perfect temperature to maximize its benefit. No mess, no fuss, and no buttons: simply insert a pre-measured Stem capsule into the heating device and enjoy the relaxation of CBD hemp, plus natural terpenes.

Every one of our products has been independently lab tested for potency, pesticides, heavy metals, and mycotoxins. Each box of Stems includes a QR code that allows you to pull up lab results easily so that you can feel confident about the safety and potency of the premium sun-grown hemp found in our Elon Starter Kits.